main page -> cases

1st case

The first case is the nominative case.

It is used for the subject of a clause or subordinate clause.

indefinite article definite particle adjective noun
singular en dx  -x -
plural dhx  -xn -x

For example:

The beautiful woman is walking Dx ceenx frau loofxt
A beautiful woman is walking En ceenx frau loofxt
The beautiful women are walking Dhx ceenxn frau'x loofxn

 

2nd case

The second case is the accusative case.

It is used for the object of a clause or subordinate clause.

indefinite article definite article adjective noun
singular enxn den -xn -
plural dhen  -xr -xn

 

For example:

I see the beautiful woman Ik zee'x den ceenxn frau'x
I see a beautiful woman Ik zee'x enxn ceenxn frau'x
I see the beautiful women Ik zee'x dhen ceenxr frau'xn

 

3rd case

The third case is the dative case.

It is used for the indirect object of a clause or subordinate clause.

indefinite article definite article adjective noun
singular enxr der -xr -
plural dher -xm -xr

 

For example:

I'm giving the beautiful woman a book Ik geefx der ceenxr frau enxn boak
I'm giving a beautiful woman a book Ik geefx enxr ceenxr frau enxn boak
I'm giving the beautiful women a book Ik geefx dher ceenxm frau'xr enxn boak

 

4th case

The fourth case is the genitive case.

It is used for:

# possession (see Possessive case):

* inalienable possession ("Janet's height", "Janet's existence", "Janet's long fingers")
* alienable possession ("Janet's jacket", "Janet's drink")
* relationship indicated by the noun being modified ("Janet's husband")

# composition 

* substance ("a wheel of cheese")
* elements ("a group of men")
* source ("a portion of the food")

# participation in an action:

* as an agent ("the coming of age") this is called the subjective genitive
* as a patient ("the archduke's murder") this is called the objective genitive

# origin ("men of Rome")

indefinite article efinite article adjective noun
singular enxs des -xn -xs
plural dher -xn -xns

 

for example:

The beautiful woman's book Dx boak des ceenxn frau'xs
A beautiful woman's book Dx boak enxs ceenxn frau'xs
The beautiful women's books Dx boak dher ceenxn frau'xns

 

5th case

The third case is the vocative case.

It is used for the party being spoken to of a clause or subordinate clause.

indefinite article definite article adjective noun
singular ena da -xm -a
plural dha -ar -an

 

For example:

Hello, my darling Haloo, mynxm cata
Hello, my darlings Haloo, mynar catan